These Citations were last updated on: February 10, 2020.
An important aspect of lowering risk of cardiovascular disease, also called coronary artery disease (CAD), is managing health behaviors and risk factors, such as diet quality, physical activity, smoking, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total cholesterol, blood glucose and other advanced heart disease biomarkers.
One of the best predictors of future heart disease is a family history of heart disease. Heart disease remains as the number one killer for both men and women.
Traditional lipid assessments include the typical tests you would receive during a routine, annual physical – for example: cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides. While these tests do provide some relevant information about your heart and vascular health, more advanced lipid testing can better assess your specific risk for developing heart disease than traditional lipid testing alone.
Lipoprotein (a) is emerging as one of the least discussed, inherited, independent risk factors for heart disease, but now that exciting new gene therapies are becoming available to treat this condition, it’s important to have you and your family members tested for it.
For more detailed information about these tests and how they relate to disease risk please visit the following links:
- What is cardiovascular disease?
- H. Robert Superko. “Beyond LDL Cholesterol Reduction”, 1996
- H. Robert Superko. “LDL and HDL Subclasses Use and Misuse in the Community”
- H. Robert Superko. “Are advanced lipoprotein testing and subfractionation clinically useful?”
- Ravi Kant Upadhyay. 2015. “Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders”.
- Ramachandran S. Vasan. 2006. “Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease: Molecular Basis and Practical Considerations”
- Tsimikas et al. 2020 “Lipoprotein (a) Reduction in Persons with Cardiovascular Disease”
- The amount of Lipoprotein (a) is an inherited trait
- Ivanova et al. “Small Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein as Biomarker for Atherosclerotic Diseases” 2017.
- The Next Good Assay for Chronic Kidney Disease：Symmetric dimethylarginine shows promise as a biomarker for measuring kidney function.
- Emilie H. Zobel. 2017. “Symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration in kidney function in persons with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria”
- Stephen Zewinger. 2017. “Symmetric dimethylarginine, high-density lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease”
Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death in the world.
In the US, more than 100 million adults are now living with diabetes or prediabetes, and 30 million Americans – 10% of the U.S. population –have diabetes.
Abnormal levels of blood glucose, insulin, adiponectin, microalbumin and A1C, indicate diabetes risk which increases risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
- Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis
- Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes
- Bruce B. 2004. “Adiponectin and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study”
- Shanshan Li. 2009. Adiponectin Levels and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”.
- Manju Chandran. 2003. “Adiponectin: More Than Just Another Fat Cell Hormone?”
Blood tests help check for certain diseases and conditions. They are used to evaluate how well your organs are working, check whether medications are working and help determine risk factors for certain conditions or disease.
- National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
Important vitamins and minerals obtained through the diet are critical to maintaining healthy organs and body.
Folate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin D and CoQ10 play important roles in your body’s performance and serve as crucial antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents to keep you healthy and feeling young.
Omega fats, primarily obtained through the diet, are important components for a healthy body. A balance between Omega 6 and Omega 3 fatty acids is important for good heart health. Too much Omega 6 fats have been clinically shown to promote oxidative stress and inflammation.
- DiNicolantonio and O’Keefe. “Importance of maintaining a low omeg-6/omega-3 ratio for reducing inflammation” 2018
- Mokhtari et al. “Antioxidant efficacy of vitamin D” 2017
- Varela-Lopez et al. “Coenzyme Q and its Role in the Dietary Therapy against Aging” 2016
- National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
Aging and Lifestyle:
Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation begins at the cellular level with specific markers that can serve as an early warning to disease risk.
It’s important to measure markers related to oxidative stress damage to DNA and other important molecules that have been associated with accelerated aging and symptoms and conditions that are not readily linked to specific diseases.
- Ligouri et al. “Oxidative stress, aging and disease”2018
- “Inflammation: A unifying theory of disease” Harvard health publishing
- Dumitrescu et al. “Oxidative Stress and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis” 2018
- Barnes et al. “The impact of oxidative DNA damage and stress on telomere homeostasis” 2018
Our hormones play a major role in regulating many different aspects of our health and disease risk. From performance to general well-being, the right balance of hormones is essential to good health.
- Corinne O’Keefe Osborn; Healthline.com
Cancer screening tests are designed to detect cancers early when treatment may be the most effective. However, it is important to consult with your physician regarding any cancer screening test results. Not all screening tests are perfect and could potentially produce an erroneous result suggesting you have cancer when you don’t or potentially that you don’t have cancer when you do. For more detailed information about these tests and how they relate to disease risk, please visit the following links: